AI’s recent feats — beating a Go champion, navigating driverless cars, making money for investors — were many decades in the making.
1950: Alan Turing developed the Turing Test for recognizing machine intelligence.
1956: John McCarthy coins “artificial intelligence” at Dartmouth College conference.
1957: Invention of Perceptron, an algorithm that could be trained to classify images.
1964: Computers understand natural language enough to solve algebra word problems.
1968: Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey features intelligent computer HAL 9000.
1979: The Stanford Cart, an autonomous vehicle, navigates across a room full of obstacles.
1982: James Simons starts quant investment firm Renaissance Technologies.
1988: David Shaw founds D.E. Shaw, an early AI adopter among hedge funds.
1990s: AI advances in machine learning, case-based reasoning, data mining, virtual reality.
1997: IBM computer Deep Blue beats world chess champion Garry Kasparov.
1990s: Web crawlers, other AI-based information programs, become Internet mainstays.
1999: Sony AIBO, a robotic pet dog, understands 100 voice commands, learns and matures.
2005: Sebastian Thrun’s Stanford team wins DARPA’s 132-mile driverless car race.
2011: IBM Watson, a system capable of answering questions, wins quiz show Jeopardy.
2012: Google’s self-driving car gets license in Nevada.
2014: Man Group starts using machine learning algorithms to manage client money.
2016: Alphabet’s DeepMind AlphaGo computer program beats Go champion.
2017: AlphaGo Zero learns by playing against itself, beats AlphaGo by 100 games to 0.
2017: Facebook switches entirely to neural networks for 4.5 billion translations a day.
2017: First AI Powered Equity ETF driven by IBM’s Watson computer starts trading.
2017: Two Sigma, a hedge fund that deploys machine learning, crosses $50 billion in assets under management.
2040s: AI could be involved in 99% of investment management, according to Man Group. — Bloomberg